Fraser fir is a fragrant evergreen tree native to the Appalachian Mountains of the southeastern United States, from Virginia down to Georgia. Native populations grow at both high and low elevations along the mountainside. They exist in nearly pure stands at high elevations but are mixed with other conifers and hard woods at mid to lower elevations. Young trees are dense and pyramidal, which is why they are favored as Christmas trees. In fact, Frasier is only rivaled in popularity by balsam fir. Mature trees reach great heights and develop open, more horizontal branches.
Short, flattened, deep green needles offer year-round interest and are flexible and soft when grasped. Small male, or pollen, cones appear in spring alongside large female cones, which are purplish when immature, age to brown and quickly shatter when fully dry. Trees small and large have nearly smooth bark dotted only with resinous bumps. (info source: Learn2Grow.com)
Genus - Abies
Species - Fraseri
Common name - Fraser Fir
Pre-Treatment - Required
Hardiness zones - 4 - 7
Height - 30ft-70ft / 9.1-20m
Spread - 20ft-25ft / 6.1-7m
Plant type - Tree
Vegetation type - Evergreen
Exposure - Full Sun, Partial Sun, Partial Shade
Growth rate - Slow
Soil PH - Acidic, Neutral
Soil type - Loam, Sand
Water requirements - Drought Tolerant, Average Water
Landscape uses - Feature Plant, Screening / Wind Break
Germination rate - 60%
Bloom season - Spring, Late Spring
Leaf / Flower color - Green, Dark Green / --
Abies seeds need to be "overwintered" or stratified before they will germinate.
1. Soak overnight in warm water.
2. Then pre-chill (stratify) for 30 days. Seeds can be stratified in dampened peat, sand or moist vermiculite , in a plastic box or bag at 4°C or 5°C in a refrigerator. The seeds should not be frozen or in a wet medium.
Seed can be sown in early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Normally will only germinate with light, but the stratification (described above) can help to increase the germination rate.
Sow Abies seeds 2-4 mm deep in the seed sowing mix.
Abies seeds will usually germinate in 21-40 days if overwintered and stratified or about 6 - 8 weeks if sown directly.
Soak seeds in cool water for two periods of 10 hours, but with a night break between them. Then after the second period, let the seeds drying out for a few hours. Next, put seeds into closed plastic bags but with little holes on the upper bag to allow gas exchanges. Place these bags in cold room/lower part of a refrigerator at +2° to +4°C. Check it out and stir it every 2 to 3 days to avoid mould development and watch also for the first appearing radicules. It usually takes 3 to 5 weeks to get about 10% of radicules to appear and then it's time for sowing.